Why is the dog’s habit of "smelling buttocks" before mating?Is it the etiquette of estrus?

Dogs are human loyal friends. Although they do not speak, they will use rich behaviors to communicate in -the -art.Among them, some behaviors are quite weird and obviously do not meet human social norms.For example: When two dogs meet, "smell the butt first" seems to have become a fixed habit of greeting, but this does not mean that they are intentionally offend each other.

In the world of animals, smelling buttocks is very like a kind of conventional etiquette. Cats, tigers, leopards, pigs, sheep, elephants, horses and other animals all show the same behavior.Studies have shown that the movement of "smelling buttocks" is like human exchange business cards, which can help animals to quickly obtain similar physiological information and facilitate understanding of the estrus of the opposite sex. This is undoubtedly of great significance for the mating and reproduction of animals.

Before analyzing this problem, we need to understand the dog’s smell system.Dogs have a well -developed smell, and there are as many as 105 to 200 million olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity, while human beings have only 5 million.In terms of information processing, 30%of the brain quality of dogs is used to identify complex odors, while human only 5%of the brain quality is used for sniffing experience, and the level of smell between the two is very different.

"Sniff" has two meanings for dogs, because each dog has two types of smell organs, one is the nasal cavity composed of olfactory epithelial cells, mainly consisting of smell cells, cup -shaped cells, and supporting cells; the other is the other;It is a plow nose (VNO) located between the nasal and oral cavity. It can be briefly understood as a narrow channel connected to the nose and mouth. The channel is covered with a sense of smell, and the brain and olfactory leaves are connected through 608 nerve beams.

Animal plow nose structure (the blue tube in the figure above)

The plow nose is also called Jacobson’s Organ. It is a relatively independent chemical experience system and the main organ for dog recognition of pheromone.When a dog’s head is close to other similar ass, it is likely to perceive the pheromone.

This is because the hips of animals have developed sebaceous glands, top secretion glands, anal glands and other glands. The external genitals of female animals are also at the tail. The secretions of the gland are the carrier of conveying information to the outside world.Near the tail of the dog, the concentration of chemical signal molecules is the highest, and it is more likely to be perceived by other companions.

During the estrus, the increased hormone and secretions generated by the bitch reproductive system increased to the increase in pheromone content such as hydroxyl benzoate, which has a strong attractiveness to males, which can lead to the latter’s rapid entry into a state of excitement.In addition, dogs can also understand the gender of the other party, whether they are currently in estrus, whether they are currently childbirth or pregnancy.

In addition to the identification of estrus status, the behavior of smelling butt is also an indispensable and important part of the dog’s social life, which is specifically reflected in two aspects:

First, help individual identification.Scientific research has found that dog anal glands can secrete unique liquids, and the internal pheromone reflects a variety of information including diet and health.With a developed smell system, dogs have strong odor recognition and memory ability, which can recognize the playmates of the past and identify the owners who have not seen them for many years.

Second, it is conducive to determining dominance.In accordance with the social rules of the dog, the dominant dog usually sniff the other’s ass.When this happens, dogs in a dominant position usually stand still to obey.By identifying the pheromone, the two sides can judge each other’s threat and respond accordingly: launch attacks or acquiescence.

Presumably everyone should understand that in the dog’s world, smelling buttocks is not a manifestation of low quality, but a must -have literacy for social experts.In addition to dogs, almost all cats and hoofs in nature also have similar phenomena in nature. The most typical behavior is the cracking lip smelling reaction, that is, the famous Flehmen Response.

The lip lip smell reaction means that the upper lip of the animal is turned backwards, exposing the gap, and keeping the nostrils and consolidation of the nostrils and maintaining a few seconds when inhaling.Studies have found that the plow nose in most animals is not in the nostrils, but between the upper jaw and nasal cavity, the opening of the pipeline is located inside the mouth.Therefore, animals need to open the upper and lower jaws to better capture signal molecules, while closed nostrils avoid the effects of other odors.

From a functional point of view, the lip lip olfactory reaction helps to concentrate in the plow nose in the oral cavity, which greatly improves the information receiving efficiency of animals.

So, what is the effect of lip lip smell?

First, it can help animal reproductive status of the opposite sex.Male animals can sniff the urine or genital secretions of female animals through cracking lips, and grasp the reproductive status according to the type of pheromone.

For example, scholars such as K.P. Bland used sheep as the object of observation and found that most of the ram’s lip lip smelling reactions occur after the urgency of the ewes, and the duration of the movement ranges from 1 to 34 seconds.Another situation occurs when the ram sniffs the genitals of the ewe, but in this case, it lasts very short, generally only 1 to 8 seconds.

Researchers speculate that the lip lip smell is the olfactory mechanism of ranger confirming the reproductive state. The duration of the duration varies from the sample of sniffing. The pheromone in the urine or secretion comes from the reproductive system of the ewe.

Secondly, it is conducive to strengthening the parent -child relationship of animals.There is a phenomenon that as the age increases, the frequency of raising lip olfactory to the mother horse gradually decreases, but the peak frequency will appear again in a few hours after childbirth.Cubs also show high -frequency sniffing behaviors in their childhood, which is conducive to strengthening the connection between mother horses and cubs.

Finally, the survival competition of species is also greatly beneficial.On the one hand, wild animals understand whether there are similar threats around through the lip lip smell response, and obtain the information of competitors through the territorial signal signal (urine, secretions, etc.)The behavior helps to actively search for the right opposite sex, and improves the success rate of individual pairing and population reproduction.

Therefore, the seemingly weird behavior may be the key to the establishment of animals, and there is a deep way to survive behind it!

The commonly confirmed sex pheromone in animals has been scientifically confirmed. Is this pheromone existing in humans?At present, this problem is still unsolved.Although a large number of research has hinted that the possibility of human pheromone exists, so far, there is no scientific team that can truly separate trace samples.

Researchers believe that human sexual phenomena and animals are essentially chemical signal molecules.But unlike animals, human beings highly depend on visual obtaining external information, weaken the function of smell, and the role of odor plays a very limited role in social networking.On the other hand, with the development of civilization, human beings have developed the habit of bathing and cleaning from time to time, reducing their own experience, and the role of various perfumes and cosmetics, which leads to the pheromone of human beings.aware.

Interestingly, the plow nose is the direct body of the pheromone, and the new fetus of human beings has obvious plow nose structure.However, with the age of age, the plow nose in the deep nasal cavity gradually reduced degradation, and eventually disappeared without leaving traces.

Scientists have conducted anatomy investigations on the corpses of 564 adults and found that 70%of adults do not have the structure of plow nose.With the substantial function of sniffing pheromone.

This seems to imply that humans and animals once also have the ability to sniff pheromone, but in the long evolution, human ancestors invented their language and tools, gradually rose to the top of the food chain, and formed a monopoly wife system.The wedding structure is no longer required for the help of plowing nasal device over time.

It is undeniable that human beings are special existence in nature. Unlike other animals, there are fixed estrus periods, nor can they directly perceive the existence of pheromone.There are many mysteries about human understanding of themselves to be explored.

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