With DHI, produce more milk and cow?

Source: 【Farmers Daily】

Dairy production performance measurement (DHI) is a technology for dairy milk production and milk composition measurement. Internationally, the first letter "DHI" of Dai Herd IMPROVEMENT is referred toDetermination is the most basic and important task in the scientific management and genetic improvement of dairy groups.

Nowadays, when you visit the supermarket, the size of the pipe is the size of the pipe, and the dairy product area is in the most significant position.Various brands of yogurt, milk and other dairy products are full of dairy products, and the merchant’s tricks will definitely make you more and more eye -catching.Many families also customize fresh milk, and the daily processing fresh milk is delivered to the door, which is convenient and convenient to open the food.

Pulling time back to the 1980s and 1990s. At that time, the urban families in China wanted to let the elderly and children drink milk, and they would ride a bicycle to bring their own bottle.Cold can drink.Even in a big city, residents order milk through milk companies, and they are two concepts as they are now.

According to the statistics of the "Chinese Food Safety" released in 2019, the per capita occupation of milk in Chinese residents in 2018 increased by 333.3%over 1996.

When milk has become an ordinary food in the daily life of the people. In the face of dazzling milk products, have you ever thought that what causes it to "drink a cup of milk every day" from extravagance to reality?Maybe you will say that you can make good milk with good cows.So the question is, where did our good cows come from?According to the internationally recognized analysis of the contribution rate of the efficiency of the dairy industry, the contribution rate of good breeds and group genetic improvement technology accounts for more than 40%.With the development of the genetic improvement technology of dairy groups, my country’s dairy industry has made great progress in cultivating dairy breeds and continuous selection and improvement.

1 ►

What is DHI?

"In 2022, 1.324 dairy farms across the country collected 1.629 million cows, 8.407 million production performance measurement records …" This is a set of statistics from Chinese dairy data centers.The keywords of this set of data are determined by dairy production performance. So what is the measurement of dairy production performance?

Dairy production performance measurement (DHI) is a technology for dairy milk production and milk composition measurement. Internationally, the first letter "DHI" of Dai Herd IMPROVEMENT is referred toDetermination is the most basic and important task in the scientific management and genetic improvement of dairy groups.

The main technical content is that each lactation monthly in each dairy individual is measured and collects milk samples to analyze the data such as milk lipid rate, lactin rate, lactose rate, and number of body cells.Perform analysis and diagnosis, timely discover the problems in the management of bull farm, and propose solutions in a targeted manner, and then implement the continuous improvement of dairy production levels through scientific management.Popularly speaking, through performance measurement, you can judge the health of a cow or a group of cows, and can also guide breeding.

Although my country’s cattle raising has a long history, most cattle varieties are local oxes that lack the genetic quality of milk.The cultivation of milk varieties in my country can only be traced back to the middle of the 19th century. After the introduction of a hair color for black and white flowers was introduced into our country, on the one hand, purebred breeding in a small area, and on the other hand, in order to expand the number of cows in order Also hybrid improvement.On this basis, after a long time of breeding, it has gradually formed dairy groups with consistent characteristics, genetic stability, high production performance, and strong adaptability.

In the early 1980s, Chinese scientific and technological workers measured the production performance of descendants after more than 170 heads of Holstein Bulls, and explored the "comparison method of the same age", "comparison method of the same period" and "improvement of the same age during the same period of the same age," Methods such as cow comparative method to estimate the number of traits and breeding value, and borrow the US cow’s total performance index TPI (Total Performance INDEX) formula. The TPI index lined up and selected more than 60 breeding verification bulls, which was a major progress in the development of cow breeding technology in my country.

In 1984, the new variety of "China Black and White Dairy Cow" was cultivated and passed through the national approval.In 1992, the "Chinese Black and White Dairy Cow" was renamed "Tystan Cow".During the ten years of the Twentan cattle in China, in order to expand the number of cow groups in the number of cows, various places have taken a lot of detours. In 1992, my country began to promote the application of DHI technology. Standards, the "China Dairy Data Data Processing Center" is established, and a complete testing laboratory has been gradually established.In 2008, the state released the implementation of the "Chinese Dairy Group Genetic Improvement Plan (2008-2020)", and set up special funds to support the promotion of DHI.

In recent years, my country’s science and technology workers have summarized a set of genetic system improvement technical systems of dairy groups, implemented accurate and standardized production performance measurement and physical identification in the cow group, organized large -scale young bulls to conduct genome selection and descendants ‘determination, and also measured, and descendants’ determination, and of descendants, and descendants, and of descendants, and descendants, and descendants, and descendants, and descendants, and descendants, and descendants,, and descendants, and descendants,, and descendants, and descendants,, and descendants, and descendants,, and descendants,,,,, are organized, and descendants are determined by descendants. After scientific and rigorous genetic assessment technology selection of excellent breede bulls, and then widely used artificial insemination technology to promote excellent genetic material to all cow groups, and comprehensively improve the production performance of cattle groups.

"There is a measurement to have data, data can be managed, and management can be improved." Professor Zhang Ye of China University of Agricultural University believes that DHI data can better provide a basis for breeding and support technical services.It can be seen that DHI, as a very important basic work in the genetic improvement of the dairy group, directly affects the overall level of the progress of group genetic improvement.

According to statistics from China Dairy Data Center, since the development of dairy production performance nationwide in 2008, professional laboratories that have been established in the country for DHI -related milk, feed, and disease testing have been established nationwide to increase from 7 before the implementation of the project to 39.The scope of measurement covers the whole country.The total area of the laboratory is 8,832 square meters, equipped with 66 sets of advanced large -scale testing equipment such as the world’s advanced level of milk component analyzer, traffic meter correction instrument, fully automatic detection robot, etc., with an annual detection capacity of more than 2 million heads.

2►

Can you judge the good or bad of cows based on testing milk alone?

"I started contact with the production performance of cows in 1997 …" Li Xueqin, head of the Longxin dairy farm farm, recalled the training that gave up his classmate party from Luoyang, Henan to Xi’an, Shaanxi.choose.

Li Xueqin’s dairy farm is located in Yanzhai Village, Gaolong Town, Yanshi District, Luoyang City. The breeding scale is not large, only 700 cows, but "Longxin" is small in Henan’s cows with the advantages of good quality and high yield.Famous.

In 1997, the former Ministry of Agriculture, the comprehensive project of Cattle Breeding in Xi’an, carried out the training performance of dairy production performance in Xi’an.Li Xueqin participated in the training."At that time, the sample was still artificially milking. At that time, I felt very amazing. Can I judge the good or bad of a cow by testing milk?" For that training, he gave up a 10 -year party for college classmates.

Since then, Li Xueqin has participated in the cow production performance measurement project. He has invited foreign experts to his farm for technical guidance for three consecutive years."At that time, the milk output of our field was very low. Each cattle produced 15 kg of milk per day, and the annual output was three or four tons. Over the years, they regularly gave Henan Dairy Cow Production Performance Mission Center (hereinafter referred to as: Henan: HenanDHI) Send the detection sample, and the systematic continuous detection has accumulated a lot of data.Behind the door of his office, a common indicator table of dairy production performance measurement is posted. He often stands in front of the comparison table to check the comparison index changes. "Guide daily production and improvement through big data.No. "

After many years of selection and selection, the average output of Longxin cows has reached 40 kg/day, and the annual output is 12 tons."In the past, there were Xiangxiang Scriptures in the people. Now the most reliable is performance measurement." Li Xueqin believes that the continuous implementation of production performance measurement and trait improvement, and his dairy output still has a lot of room for improvement.

In mid -May this year, Henan DHI released the Joint Announcement of the Henan Henan Provincial Henan Provincial Various Registration in 2022.In the announcement, according to the conditions of the completeness of dairy cows, the average annual annual production of the pastoral and cows, the number of milk volume, and the appearance appraisal of the cow body shape, from the 84098 dairy cows and the 114758 dairy cows in the province last year, screening9314 high -quality cows are used as the core group and recommend to the society.

"We have 137 cows selected as the core group selected in the province." Li Xueqin was very satisfied with this result."The cows are selected into the core group, and then the high -quality frozen essence is used.

Established in 2008, Henan DHI is a regional milk that integrates dairy cow registration, production performance determination, descendants’ determination, genetic assessment, fresh milk quality monitoring, nutrition analysis, disease testing, genetic material detection, and pasture information management.Industry service agencies are the first DHI measurement laboratory in China and the only DHI measurement laboratory that passed the on -site review and certification of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Ministry.

The staff of Henan DHI was checked in a third party for the reference of dairy cows.Data map

"To raise dairy cows and produce good milk, you must find out all the family members who have grasped the cow and breeding conditions!"Having said that since 2016, Henan DHI has completed a total of 351,600 dairy farms of 337 dairy farms, and the production performance measurement tasks of dairy cows have been completed.According to the statistics of the China Dairy Association, Henan Province’s DHI DHI test ratio reached 54.5%, ranking among the best in the province of the national dairy owner.

After 10 years, Henan DHI has established a comprehensive determination system, data collection system, and variety registration system, and has figured out all the family members of Henan provinces and breeding conditions.At the end of December 2022, Henan DHI has built the "Henan Dairy Cow Comprehensive Data Service Platform System", which has accumulated data such as 48,4243 dairy cows, body appearance identification, photos and other data. It is currently the largest provincial registered registered platform in China.

Not only did Henan Province find out the production performance of cows, but the production performance of cows across the country also achieved data to check.For more than 30 years, my country has accumulated 3720 dairy farms and 5.57 million cows to participate in the measurement, and has accumulated a large amount of dairy performance data.With the accumulated production performance data of cows, in 2008, my country began the first independent genetic assessment of dairy cows. To this day, it has recommended more than 3,000 excellent breeds in the industry, providing a key material foundation for the construction of the independent breeding system in our country.

3►

The dairy cow has a good appearance and can make more milk?

"The farm has worked closely with Henan DHI in 2015. We regularly sample each month for various testing, and then adjust the breeding management according to the test report."It can be said to be familiar with it. He thinks that basic data is supported, which is more accurate than looking for experience.

Wang Shikun’s responsible company was formerly known as Henan Dairy Breeding Center and was one of the first ten national core breeding venues.In the company’s farm, a healthy Holstein cow eats forage in the circle, and the milk time is arranged in an orderly manner to milk the milking hall.Ton.

The company’s ears are wearing exclusive 15 -digit identity information ear markers, and blue intelligent monitoring collars are hung on the neck. Each cow’s movement rules, active lactation, resting data, when estrus, when the estrus, whenThe information is feedback on the technician’s mobile phone in time.

"Dairy breeding is different from beef cows. Milk is the product of the production of cows after pregnancy. Therefore, whether dairy is pregnant is of great significance to the farm. The technician is most concerned about the estrus data detected on the cows."The cost of fed dairy will increase by 16-32 yuan for one day, and feeds a 21-day estrus cycle. The cost increases by 330-670 yuan. At the same time, the milk production during the estrus period is relatively reduced by 60 kg.

The staff of Henan DHI conducted a dairy test in guiding the ranch.Data map

In order to increase benefits, Wang Shikun used the rapid pregnancy detection technology. On the 21st day of the dairy breeding, he could sample for early pregnancy testing. Compared with the conventional B -ultrasound detection time, it was shortened by about 10 days, which greatly advanced the test time and saved the cost of breeding.With this technology, Henan DHI conducted a total of 5,2273 early pregnancy testing in the province last year to identify 18050 heads of empty cows, which significantly improved the breeding efficiency and milk output of the seeds.

"The traditional phase cattle in our country is the application of beef body appearance. It is an empirical method. The dairy cow has a good structure, a high head, a good breast structure, and good width in the post -cricket.It has a relationship. "Yan Yuefei, who has long been engaged in the appearance of dairy cows, is a national -level dairy -like appearance appraisal. Only after he has identified the appearance of the cow body appearance data, the National Breeding Center recognizes it.There are only 8 people in the province like he who has the qualifications of dairy -like appearance appraisal qualifications.

"From the perspective of eugenics, the appearance of dairy cows is good, and the milk production will be high." Wang Shikun agreed with Yan Yuefei’s point of view. In the past few years, the cows introduced from abroad generally have problems such as back waist concave and lack of width.Cows are prone to difficulty in yield and low milk production rate.After these years of continuous improvement, these adverse traits have been greatly improved, and the milk yield rate of cow has continued to increase.

In order to put the first level of good dairy safety, Henan DHI has been led since 2012, and has built a data platform for fresh milk quality and safety testing data in Henan Province.Acquisition stations and fresh milk tests such as fresh milk detection in the whole process of fresh milk detection.

At present, Henan DHI has undertaken the tasks of fresh milk testing in fresh milk in the agricultural and rural ministry, Zhengzhou, Xinxiang and other places, and completed a total of 7080 batches of fresh milk testing.Henan Province’s daily production of dairy milk, 305 land production, milk lipid rate, dairy rate and body cells were 33.63 kg, 9700.81 kg, 4.04%, 3.31%, and 210,600/ml. The quality of fresh milk hasReaching the world’s advanced level.By 2022, the average yield of cow farms in Henan will exceed 10 tons for more than 8 consecutive years, and the average dairy, milk fat rate and body cells will exceed the EU standards.

4►

Use DHI to guide the cow, can you sell more than 2,000 yuan?

Huahua Bulls and Animal Husbandry Technology Installed the body -shaped intelligent measurement equipment on the passage of the cow to go to the milking hall. The dairy cows stand on the channel to stand on the channel intelligent measurement equipment. It only needs to wait for 15 seconds to determine the weight, body height, bust, bust, bust,Multiple data such as chest depth.In the past, a group of manually measured a maximum of 80 cows a day, and the efficiency was much lower than informatization equipment."Each cow should be determined at least 6 times before the age of 2 to ensure that it can be screened and retained in time to retain high -quality breeds and eliminate cows that do not meet the requirements." Wang Shikun believes that the Nutrition provided by Henan DHI after each testing of dairy cows is nutritional., Breeding, epidemic and other technical services and data support, it is very helpful for the company’s scientific management.

"We will directly feedback the determined fresh dairy indicators, reproduction indicators and health indicators to the cattle farm, providing a dynamic basis for breeding management, selection and options, and economic benefits analysis.Refined management can achieve scientific and efficient breeding, "said Dr. Yan Lei, Henan.

"Choose cattle first to look at the amount of milk. The rear -drives of the cattle must be developed well, the limbs must be strong, and they should live as long as possible."In recent years, he has continuously determined the data adjustment and selection and selection direction based on the performance of DHI.The earliest dairy in the cattle farm is in 2012. It can also produce 30 kilograms of milk every day, and there are two dairy cows in 2014. The 5th day of the lactation period can produce 41.3 kg of milk.Milk produces more than 50 kg per day."Our cow uses the average tires on average, exceeding the average value of 2.3 tires in Henan Province."

Based on DHI’s performance indicators, a breeding plan for each cow is given to each cow, and improving the comprehensive traits of each cattle is Wang Shikun’s successful experience.Their three generations of cattle are very complete. Since the breeding is put into production, it has sold more than 1,000 high -quality cows, including Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Shanxi and other places.

Henan Lvyuan Dairy, Henan Lvyuan Dairy, who bought Huahua Cow Cow and Animal Husbandry Technology Company Two times. This year, he planned to buy dozens of other cows."His cow has a high milk production, with an average of more than 30 kilograms. The price is 2,000 yuan more expensive than ordinary cows, but the calves will be bought in about 2 months, and 90%are cows."explain.

The comprehensiveness and diversity of DHI data is an important basis for the production management of ranch.Henan DHI can analyze and judge the problems in the pasture and the problems existing in the hezen through the integration of the DHI test results and the pasture data, and become a new type of pasture management tool.Li Jiaowei, a Xinxiang Animal Husbandry Technology Promotion Station, said that a series of inspection and testing services promoted by Henan DHI improved the efficiency of grassroots breeding. In particular, disease testing services allowed veterinarians to say goodbye to cure diseases, saving farmers’ breeding costs, and realizing it.The goal of breeding reducing resistance.

Since the launch of Henan Dairy DHI testing project, the test of the test has achieved good benefits from the application of DHI technology, and the production management and technical indicators of dairy farm have also improved significantly.During the "Thirteenth Five -Year Plan" period, Henan DHI has completed a total of 32386 heads (sections) of various common disease tests, which saves 16.193 million yuan for the ranch.Especially in the past five years, Henan DHI has completed a total of 342,200 dairy cows ‘measurement of 321 cows’ test venues, and the measured scale has reached 3.8916 million dairy samples.

5►

How to choose high -yield dairy cow genes?

"Can a Mavericks produce high -quality frozen essence in the future? Can cows be high -yielding milk in the future? Now it can be judged by genomic selection technology. If there is no high -yielding milk gene, it can be used as a commodity beef." Wang Shikun is responsible for the farm. "It has bid farewell to the traditional test of bulls. Traditional methods take 5 years to verify. Now relying on the basic data of continuously accumulated DHI, the accuracy rate can reach more than 75%through genome testing and evaluation.

At the end of last year, Wang Shikun adopted over -row cultivation and transplantation technology to choose 40 high -quality embryos.In the past, the cost of good bulls produced by imported embryos was more than 50,000 yuan.Now with its own high -quality and good breeds, the cost is reduced to about 2,000 yuan, and the benefits are obvious.

To quickly expand the population of good breed cows, it is necessary to expand quickly.To achieve rapid expansion, it is necessary to establish an international competitive independent dairy type evaluation mechanism. DHI is the basic work of the genetic improvement of dairy groups. It is an indispensable and important part of the construction of the autonomous breeding system of my country.

Application genome selection technology can achieve an early accurate choice of youth bulls, greatly shorten the interval between generations, and accelerate the genetic progress of the group. At present, genome selection technology has been widely used.Researcher Zhu Huabin at the Beijing Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences believes that the characteristics of large -scale dairy farm breeding are not to cultivate new varieties, but to choose and strengthen the target traits required.Core breeding cattle groups can be divided into core groups, production groups and elimination groups according to the genealogy and production performance.

With the support of the former Ministry of Agriculture, since 2008, professors of China Agricultural University Zhang Ye and Zhang Qin’s team have undertaken the research and development of the Hubesan Bull Genome selection technology platform."The primary work of genomic selection is to establish a large -scale reference group for estimating the genetic effect of each mark in the genome to the target traits, and establish a genome breeding value prediction equation."In 2006, the reference group began. After continuous expansion, by the end of 2022, the group scale reached 17,000 heads. The metering records of all cows’ milk, health, body type, reproduction and other traits were determined.The marked genotype was determined.

"Betting better cows through genome detection, establish our own core group, and then quickly expand through embryonic transplantation methods. Only with these foundations can we expand the population. With DHI’s data support, everyone believes that the quality of the cow is good." Zhang Zhen believes that although my country has established its own reference group, there are still problems such as less basic data and poor accuracy compared to developed countries.As breeders, we must firmly grasp the right to speak and reduce dependence on imports."

In 2020, the Seed Industry Management Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and the National Animal Husbandry Station launched the "Dairy Genome Selection Reference Group Construction Project", and simultaneously carried out third -party inspection projects for breeding data such as new bulls, DHI, and body appearance.On the one hand, through the formation of large -scale, high -quality dairy reference group genome, it further improves my country’s cow genome selection technology platform to improve the accuracy and reliability of the genetic assessment of the Holistan Bulls genome; on the other hand, while expanding the reference group scale , Pay more attention to the control of reference group quality.

In April 2021, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs issued the "Notice on Printing and Distributing a New round of the National Live and Poultry Genetic Improvement Plan" and the "National Dairy Genetic Improvement Plan 2021-2035".EssenceAmong them, cows focus on dominant varieties, innovate a joint breeding mechanism, expand the scale of production performance measurement, and improve the technical platform of dairy genome selection.

The staff conducted test experiments in Henan DHI Laboratory.Photo by Farmers Daily · China Agricultural Net reporter Feng Jianwei

Since 2022, Henan DHI has selected 10 ranch in the province to conduct genetic performance evaluation of cows. On the basis of screening 9314 cows last year, 8,000 breeding groups have been selected this year to choose from the breeding group to choose fromAs a core group of breeding, 4000 heads choose 500 heads as breeding cow groups from the core group of breeding, laying the foundation for the self -cultivation of bulls.Since continuously carried out the province’s variety registration and genetic assessment work, the various phenotype traits and database construction of Henan Province’s dairy groups have gradually expanded, and it is becoming more and more complete.

At present, my country’s cow conventional and genomic genetic assessment technology platform has achieved full coverage of youth bull genome tests. Regularly released the "Chinese Milk Bulls Genetic Evaluation" each year provides detailed data for the selection of dairy breeds.

Not long ago, a good news from the Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine of the Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences. One of the Holstein Bulls of Bull Genome (TPI) reached 3118, which was the first to break through 3100’s excellent rear bulls for the domestic TPI value.The successful selection of this high -quality bull has proved that after years of hard work, my country has established Chinese dairy breeding techniques with cow varieties, production performance, body identification, bull’s descendants of descendants of bulls, breeding genetic assessment, genome selection, etc. It provides a guarantee for objective evaluation of the genetic quality of bulls.

Author: Farmers Daily · China Agricultural Net reporter Feng Jianwei

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